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Introduction To Computer System

Definition of Computer

A computer is a high-speed electronic device that accepts data and instructions from the user then processes the data according to the instructions from the user and produces information as output.

A computer is often referred to as a data processor because it can store, process, and retrieve data whenever desire.

Working Principle of Computer

IPO Cycle is the working principle of computers.

  • Input
  • Process
  • Storage
  • Output


Input is the collection of unorganized facts that include the number, sounds, images, texts, etc. Input devices like keyboard, mouse, joystick, etc used to feed the data into the computer.


Processing is the manipulation of data according to instructions given by the user. It is capable of performing arithmetic and logic operations on data.


If the output information is important for future use then the computer stores that information in secondary storage devices and currently working files and folders in primary memory that is RAM and ROM.


It is the result processed by the CPU on the data input from the user & we can say output helps to display information or result.

Characteristics/Features of Computer

i) Speed:

The computer can do calculations at a very fast rate. It can even perform very complex calculations that a human being may not be able to do. Must of the modern computer perform the given task in a millisecond, microsecond, picosecond, and nanosecond.

ii) Automatic:

It carries out the job normally without any human intervention. Once we give the appropriate data and instruction a computer can do the operation automatically as it is already program to do so.


The computer performs every calculation with the same accuracy. If the data and instruction gives correct, the result given by the computer will always be correct. The term GIGO(Garbage In Garbage Out) applies in the context as if we feed wrong data then the computer always or obviously gives you the wrong information.


The computer is free from monotony, tiredness, and lack of concentration. It is capable of doing the required task. Again and again, we shout affecting, its speed, accuracy, and efficiency. It never gets tired, bored, or lazy to do the job.


A computer is a versatile machine. It can perform a wide variety of tasks. It has a wide range of applications and is used in different fields like education, science, business, medicine, etc.

vi) Reliability:

It is the measurement of the performance of a computer that is measured against some pre-determined standard of operation without any failure. The major reason behind the reliability of a computer is that it works on the instructions given by the user which are already trusted.

Vii) Resource Sharing:

It helps a computer network, we can share data and resources among the networked computer like a single printer in a LAN(Local Area Network).

Viii) Memory:

The computer can store large amounts of data and it can recall required information on demand. HDD, RAM, ROM, etc are the example of storage device.

0 or 1 = 1 bit

4 bit = 1 Nibble

8 bit or 2 Nibble = 1 byte

1024 byte = 1 kilo byte(KB)

1024 KB = 1 mega byte(MB)

1024 MB = 1 giga byte(GB)

1024 GB = 1 tera byte(TB)

1024 TB = 1 peta byte(PB)

1024 PB = 1 exa byte(EB)

1024 EB = 1 Zetta byte(ZB)

1024 ZB = 1 yotta byte(YB)

Limitations of Computer

No Feelings/No IQ

The computer can not take decisions within itself and can’t understand the circumstances. So, we can say computers do not have feelings and IQ.

Application Area of Computer

i)Education Sector:

In the education sector, computers play a vital role or the following points:

  • It helps to create student records or attendance, marks, and various other topics.
  • Students can get the help of internet online classes, online videos for solving their problems.
  • By using multimedia, the teaching & learning environment can be easier.
  • With the help of a computer, students can use self-learning tools.

ii)Office Sector:

For the following reason, the computer is very popular in office to solve their day to day problems.

  • To keep the records of employees & their payroll.
  • To create a letter on email for sending and receiving.
  • To store the records of all the customers.
  • To do the data analysis and calculation.
  • To train the new employees.

iii) Transportation:

These are the points which computer helps in transportation:

  • Railway & airline ticket reservation.
  • Booking online tickets using the internet.
  • Control of traffic and maintain the timetable of vehicles and duties of the crew.
  • It helps to control the air traffic.

iv) Hospital Sector:

  • Computer helps the doctor in their diagnosis.
  • hospitals maintain the details of the patients.
  • The accounting system of the hospital is maintained by computer.
  • Online doctoring services can be provided to remote areas, where there are no access oof doctors.
  • Almost all laboratory equipment is based on IT.

v) Banks:

  • To maintain the ledger to handle the transaction to entry in a passbook to issue the fixed deposit.
  • The computer allows the customer to make withdraw and to deposit via an Automated Teller Machine(ATM).
  • With the use of a computer electronic transfer of funds is possible.

vi) Film:

  • The computer is used to create special effects in movies.
  • Computer helps in editing, composing, recording, and reproducing music on a movie.
  • It is used to add cartoon animation to a movie.

vii)Police Station:

  • To keep the records of criminals.
  • To keep the records of different case files.
  • To keep the city secured with the help of CCTV.
  • It helps the communication between the police station on various issues.
  • It helps the police by emergency auto alarming for calls.

viii) Communication:

  • It provides fast, reliable, and cheap communication over the world.
  • Different communication devices such as e-mail, video conferencing, Internal phone, chatting are possible due to computers.
  • Social network sites like Twitter, Facebook helps to share news, views, and ideas on a common interesting subject.

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